Archivo de la categoría: Ganancia

Dos soluciones al problema de la transformación de valores a precios de producción

Alejandro Valle Baeza

En 2021, Jesús Rojo organizó una presentación de dos soluciones al llamado problema de la transformación de valores a precios de producción formulado por Marx en el tomo III de El capital.

Hay dos clases de soluciones al problema de la transformación: las que critican la teoría del valor marxiana: por contradictoria (Bortkiewics (1) o por redundante (Sraffa (2). Por otro lado están las que consideran los precios de producción como un desarrollo de la teoría del valor trabajo en un nivel más concreto de análisis que el empleado en los dos primeros tomos de El capital.

Ramos plantea ua solución de esta segunda clase, denominada temporalista. Carchedi, Freeman, Kliman y el propio Ramos han contribuido a este planteamiento (3). En el video Ramos explica esta solución.

Valle plantea su solución, también de la segunda clase de soluciones, que publicó en 1978 (4). Esta solución se basa en que las dos igualdades por Marx (suma de valores igual a suma de precios de producción y plusvalía total igual a ganancia total) deben formularse en términos de valor y no, como absurdamente hizo Bortkiewicz, comparando valores con precios.

Vea el video de las presentaciones de Ramos y de Valle: https://youtu.be/1SuG93RUvLw

Notas

  1. Bortkiewicz v., Ladislaus. «Contribución a una rectificación de los fundamentos de la construcción teórica de Marx, en el volumen III de El capital». En Economía burguesa y economía socialista, editado por Sweezy, Paul, 191-222. 49. Córdoba, Argentina: Pasado y Presente, 1974.
  2. Sraffa Piero. Producción de mercancías por medio de mercancías: Preludio a una crítica de la Teoría Económica. Barcelona: Oikos-Tau, 1966.
  3. Freeman, A. and G. Carchedi (1995) (eds). Marx and Non-Equilibrium Economics. Edward Elgar.
  4. Valle Baeza, Alejandro . “Valor Y Precios de Producción.” Investigación Económica 37, no. 146 (1978): 169–203. http://www.jstor.org/stable/42779015.

HM3: the profits-investment puzzle — Michael Roberts Blog

The other session at the Historical Materialism London conference that I participated in was on The Relation between Profits, Investment and Crises. This was organised by Al Campbell from the University of Utah. In his paper, Al outlined how in the last two decades a gap opened up between the growth in profitability and the […]

a través de HM3: the profits-investment puzzle — Michael Roberts Blog

David Harvey, monomaniacs and the rate of profit

Michael Roberts

David Harvey is a Distinguished Professor at the City University of New York (CUNY), Director of The Center for Place, Culture and Politics (http://pcp.gc.cuny.edu/) and author of numerous books. For over 40 years, he has been one of the world’s most trenchant and critical analysts of capitalist development. And he has developed a global audience for his on-line video lectures on reading Capital, (see http://davidharvey.org/). Harvey won the 2010 Isaac Deutscher prize for the best Marxist book of the year with The Enigma of Capital (http://www.amazon.com/Enigma-Capital-Crises-Capitalism/dp/0199836841).

I have commented on Harvey’s contributions to Marxist economics on various occasions on my blog.
https://thenextrecession.wordpress.com/2010/09/03/views-on-the-great-recession-david-harvey-and-anwar-shaikh/
https://thenextrecession.wordpress.com/2011/11/13/david-harvey-marxs-method-and-the-enigma-of-surplus/
https://thenextrecession.wordpress.com/2014/05/19/david-harvey-piketty-and-the-central-contradiction-of-capitalism/

Professor Harvey has always been critical of the view that Marx’s law of the tendency of the rate of profit to fall plays any significant role as a cause of crises under capitalism. In his award winning book, The enigma of capital, he states that “There is, therefore, no single causal theory of crisis formation as many Marxist economists like to assert. There is, for example, no point in trying to cram all of this fluidity and complexity into some unitary theory of, say, a falling rate of profit”.

Recently, Harvey has returned to this point in the presentation of an essay to the University of Izmir, Turkey in October. You can see a You tube screening of that presentation at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ZJrNgb-iiY&spfreload=10
Seguir leyendo David Harvey, monomaniacs and the rate of profit

Tasa de ganancia en México, 1970-2003

Resumen:
La Tesis Doctoral analiza la economía de México durante el período de 1970 a 2003. La hipótesis a contrastar plantea la caracterización de la crisis económica estructural a partir de la rentabilidad del capital. En concreto, consideramos que la crisis que subyace en el comportamiento de la economía mexicana está provocada por un descenso de la tasa de ganancia. Además, se abordan sus determinantes, pues se define que la causa radica en el incremento de la mecanización del proceso productivo, lo que se manifiesta en una elevación de los índices de la composición del capital. Constituye, por tanto, una crisis de rentabilidad, en la cual el ámbito de la distribución del ingreso se somete a las pautas de la dimensión tecnológica, crisis que, por otra parte, emerge en toda su intensidad cuando la masa de ganancia se estanca e incluso desciende en términos constantes.
La investigación se fundamenta en la teoría marxista y sus categorías propias, para lo cual se realizan estimaciones de la masa de plusvalía, el capital variable, el acervo de capital, el trabajo productivo y el valor no capitalista. La estructura formal contiene tres secciones, i) sobre los aspectos teóricos del análisis marxista de la producción capitalista, la acumulación, la tendencia de la tasa de ganancia y la crisis, y estudiando críticamente otras concepciones; ii) la conceptualización y la metodología desarrollada en la medida empírica de las categorías; y iii) el análisis de los resultados obtenidos.

 

Descargue la tesis

Michael Heinrich, Marx’s law and crisis theory

LFTRP

May 19, 2013

Michael Roberts

Michael Heinrich is an exponent of what is known as the ‘New German Reading of Marx’, which interprets the theory of value that Marx presents in Capital as a socially specific theory of  ‘impersonal social domination’. He is a collaborator on the MEGA edition of Marx and Engel’s complete works and has published several philological studies of Capital. He has also authored a work on Marx’s theory of value, The Science of Value, which is forthcoming in the Historical Materialism book series. And recently he has published An Introduction to all Three Volumes of Capital as his first full-length work to appear in English.

I am not going to do a critique of Heinrich’s views on the theory of value, as this has been done by Guglielmo Carchedi in his book, Behind the Crisis (see chapter 2).  But I am moved to respond to a recent article of Heinrich’s in the American Monthly Review, entitled Crisis theory, the law of the tendency of the rate of profit to fall and Marx’s studies in the 1870s (monthlyreview.org-Crisis_Theory_the_Law_of_the_Tendency_of_the_Profit_Rate_to_Fall_and_Marxs_Studies_in_the_1870s__Mont).

In this article, Heinrich makes the following points: 1) Marx’s law is inconsistent because its categories are indeterminate; 2) it is empirically unproven and even unjustifiable on any measure of verification; 3) Engels badly edited Marx’s works to distort his view on the law in Capital Vol 3; 4) Marx himself in his later works of the 1870s began to have doubts about the law as the cause of crises and started to abandon it in favour of some theory that took into account credit, interest rates and the problem of realisation (similar to Keynesian theory); 5) Marx died before he could present these revisions of his crisis theory, so there is no coherent Marxist theory of crisis. Seguir leyendo Michael Heinrich, Marx’s law and crisis theory

Profitability and the Roots of the Global Crisis: Marx’s ‘Law of the Tendency of the Rate of Profit to Fall’ and the US Economy, 1950–2007

Abstract The relevance of Marx’s theory of value and his ‘law of the tendency of the rate of profit to fall’ to the analysis of the financial crisis of 2007–8 and the ensuing global slump is affirmed. The hypertrophic growth of unproductive constant capital, including the wages of ‘socially necessary’ unproductive labour and tax revenues, is identified as an important manifestation of an historical-structural crisis of capitalism, alongside the increasing weight of fictitious capital and the proliferation of fictitious profits in the lead-up to the financial crisis. These phenomena have obscured the deepest roots of the global slump in the long-term profitability problems of productive capital – that is, in a crisis of surplus-value production. With these considerations taken into account, a better empirical assessment of trends in the composition of capital becomes possible, and with it a more accurate understanding of the impact of the ongoing displacement of living labour from production on the average rate of profit and the future of US and global capitalism.

Affiliations: 1: Brock University msmith@brocku.ca ; 2: Brock University jbutovsky@brocku.ca

Fuente: http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/10.1163/1569206x-12341273;jsessionid=842jsnqufgkoi.x-brill-live-01

Krugman concluye hoy lo que Marx había dicho en la ley general de la acumulación capitalista

robots-foxconn“Technology has shifted in a way that really favors capital over labor,” Krugman said. “That makes it possible to replace people with machines.”

The rise of machines is in part to blame for growing income inequality, according to Paul Krugman.

The Nobel Prize-winning economist and New York Times columnist said in an interview with Business Insider that companies’ preference for investing in machines instead of workers is partially to blame for income inequality in the 21st century. That’s a shift from the last two decades of the 20th century when income inequality was mostly about the differences between high-skill and low-skill workers.

“Technology has shifted in a way that really favors capital over labor,” Krugman said. “That makes it possible to replace people with machines.”

Since 1960, income inequality has jumped in the U.S. by more than in any other Western country, according to a November analysis from economics professors.

Even while income inequality soars, workers aren’t catching any breaks. From the start of the economic recovery until June 2011, business spending on equipment and software increased 26 percent, while spending on labor grew by 2 percent, according to The New York Times. In developed countries around the world, millions of middle-class jobs have been lost to technology, the Associated Press reports.

And while companies are hiring fewer workers in favor of more machines, they’re squeezing more out of the workers that do get jobs. S&P 500 companies made $420,000 per worker in 2011, a full ninth more than in 2007.

Source: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/02/02/paul-krugman-rise-of-machines_n_2607346.html

 

Statistical Evidence of Falling Profits as Cause of Recession

Ganancias y crisis o recesiones en EUA
Ganancias y crisis o recesiones en EUA

Tapia Granados, José A. “ Statistical Evidence of Falling Profits as Cause of Recession A Short Note”, Review of Radical Political Economics December 2012 vol. 44 no. 4 484-493.

Data on 251 quarters of the U.S. economy show that recessions are preceded by declines in profits. Profits stop growing and start falling four or five quarters before a recession. They strongly recover immediately after the recession. Since investment is to a large extent determined by profitability and investment is a major component of demand, the fall in profits leading to a fall in investment, in turn leading to a fall in demand, seems to be a basic mechanism in the causation of recessions.

Full article

La relación entre tasa de interés real y la tasa de ganancia: un estudio empírico para EUA 1869-2009

Iván Mendieta Muñoz

Alejandro Vallle Baeza

Valle Baeza, Alejandro y Mendieta Muñoz, Iván. «What is the Relationship Between the Rates of Interest and Profit? An Empirical Note for the U.S. Economy, 1869-2009». /Investigación Económica/ LXXI, n^o . 280 (junio 2012): 163–183.

The current paper aims at contributing to the study of the relationship between the rates of interest and profit by offering an empirical analysis of the United States (U.S.) economy during the period 1869-2009, which has rendered the  following findings: 1) the general rate of profit has fixed an upper limit to the real short-term and long-term Federal Funds interest rates; 2) the real long-term Federal Funds interest rate has undergone movements similar to those of the general rate of profit, whereas the short-run Federal Funds
interest has experienced opposite movements regarding the latter; and 3) there  is evidence supporting heterodox theories  emphasizing that monetary policy affects the distribution of income through the modification of the rate of profit, which entails that monetary factors can be directly allowed in the determination of the rate of profit.

Detrás y más allá de la crisis

Tasa media de beneficio (TMB) y composición orgánica del capital (C/V) para los sectores productivos, 1948-2009.

 

Guglielmo Carchedi

La crisis financiera de 2007 ha vuelto a encender el debate sobre las crisis, su origen y sus posibles remedios1. Actualmente la tesis más influyente en la izquierda ve la crisis como una consecuencia del subconsumo y recomienda políticas keynesianas para su solución. En este trabajo se argumenta que debemos entender la crisis desde la perspectiva de la ley de la caída tendencial de la tasa media de beneficio (TMB) de Karl Marx (para resumir, en adelante: “la ley”). Su característica peculiar es que el progreso tecnológico hace descender la tasa de beneficio, en vez de incrementarla, como se suele asumir. Veamos por qué.
I. Resumen de la ley
Las características esenciales de la ley son las siguientes:
(1) Los capitalistas compiten entre sí introduciendo nuevos medios de producción que incorporan nuevas tecnologías. Esta no es la única forma de competencia, pero es de lejos la más importante para entender la dinámica de las crisis2.
(2) Los nuevos medios de producción incrementan la eficiencia (producción [output] de valores de uso por unidad de capital invertida) de los capitales tecnológicamente más avanzados en los sectores productivos.
(3) Al mismo tiempo, las nuevas tecnologías están destinadas a reemplazar trabajadores con medios de producción. Por tanto, en los capitales más avanzados tecnológicamente la proporción de capital invertido en medios de producción relativa a la invertida en fuerza de trabajo, la composición orgánica del capital, aumenta. La consecuencia es el desempleo. Seguir leyendo Detrás y más allá de la crisis

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