Archivo de la categoría: Crédito

Un ejemplo de cómo opera el capitalismo en el “socialismo” estilo chino

La policía escolta en Pekín a varios manifestantes afectados por las pérdidas de las plataformas P2P. Greg Baker AFP
  • La jungla de los microcréditos online en China deja a millones sin ahorros
  • Decenas de millones de ciudadanos pierden su dinero debido al fraude y la insolvencia en el negocio, mientras Pekín aplaca cualquier atisbo de protesta

Xavier Fontdeglòria

Pekín 9 de agosto de 2018 – 23:47 ED

Xie, de 29 años y que prefiere identificarse solo por su apellido, ha perdido los ahorros de toda su familia después de que la plataforma de microcréditos online china Zhang Yue Li Cai dejase de operar repentinamente este julio. Atraída por las nada despreciables ganancias* a corto plazo, en diciembre invirtió hasta 400.000 yuanes (algo más de 50.000 euros) para que esta empresa los prestara a otras. Menos de un año después, Xie no solamente da por imposible recuperar el dinero perdido, sino que siente la persecución de las autoridades chinas, que se han desvinculado de unas prácticas que mezclan la mala gestión, el fraude y los esfuerzos de Pekín para controlar los riesgos de su sector bancario en la sombra. Seguir leyendo Un ejemplo de cómo opera el capitalismo en el “socialismo” estilo chino

¿Se avecina una crisis mundial deudora?

Argentina is seeking International Monetary Fund aid after a series of drastic interest rate rises failed to stop the slide in the peso, pushing the country towards a financial crisis. Mauricio Macri, Argentina’s right-wing, pro-big business president, announced the approach to the IMF in a nationally televised address, saying international assistance would enable the government […]

a través de Global debt crisis ahead? — Michael Roberts Blog

Habrá una crisis económica…

Resultado de imagen para crisis económica en méxico

Alejandro Valle Baeza

No hay ningún mérito en decir lo que pusimos en el título de este artículo. En el capitalismo decir que habrá crisis puede hacerse con la certeza con la que se anuncia la salida del sol para mañana. En los Estados Unidos, la primera economía capitalista del mundo hay, en promedio,  una crisis cada 56.4 meses desde el año 1854 hasta 2009, año en el cual ocurrió la última crisis registrada en ese país según la oficina gubernamental  encargada de estudiar el fenómeno la National Bureau of Economic Activity (BEA). Ya han pasado más de 56 meses desde el fin de la última crisis registrada por la BEA quien lo fechó en junio de 2009.

Es meritorio decir, como lo están haciendo algunos marxistas,  que habrá una crisis estadounidense este año o el siguiente. Por ejemplo José Tapia, marxista español quien trabaja en EUA,  pronosticó una crisis para 2016 o 2017. Michael Roberts, un marxista británico, ha dicho adicionalmente que hay posibilidades que sea severa y se convierta en mundial. Roberts basa su pronóstico en el análisis de la secuela de la crisis anterior: “La resaca de la crisis global”.[1] Para paliar los efectos de la crisis de 2008-09 los gobiernos de las principales economía capitalistas se han endeudado aceleradamente y han propiciado que lo hagan las empresas. El resultado es que la deuda creció hasta volver al nivel peligroso que había en 2007 y que propició la crisis financiera iniciada en diciembre de ese año. La deuda mundial es 225 por ciento del producto interno bruto mundial tal como se ve en la gráfica:

deb_global

Ilustración 1

Seguir leyendo Habrá una crisis económica…

Janet Yellen and the US economy — Michael Roberts Blog

Last December, the Federal Reserve decided to raise its policy interest rate for the first time since the Great Recession. At the time, the Fed thought that the US economy was starting to expand at a sufficiently fast rate that it would suck up all the unemployed and create conditions for increased demand and rising […]

a través de Janet Yellen and the US economy — Michael Roberts Blog

Profitability and the Roots of the Global Crisis: Marx’s ‘Law of the Tendency of the Rate of Profit to Fall’ and the US Economy, 1950–2007

Abstract The relevance of Marx’s theory of value and his ‘law of the tendency of the rate of profit to fall’ to the analysis of the financial crisis of 2007–8 and the ensuing global slump is affirmed. The hypertrophic growth of unproductive constant capital, including the wages of ‘socially necessary’ unproductive labour and tax revenues, is identified as an important manifestation of an historical-structural crisis of capitalism, alongside the increasing weight of fictitious capital and the proliferation of fictitious profits in the lead-up to the financial crisis. These phenomena have obscured the deepest roots of the global slump in the long-term profitability problems of productive capital – that is, in a crisis of surplus-value production. With these considerations taken into account, a better empirical assessment of trends in the composition of capital becomes possible, and with it a more accurate understanding of the impact of the ongoing displacement of living labour from production on the average rate of profit and the future of US and global capitalism.

Affiliations: 1: Brock University msmith@brocku.ca ; 2: Brock University jbutovsky@brocku.ca

Fuente: http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/10.1163/1569206x-12341273;jsessionid=842jsnqufgkoi.x-brill-live-01

Crédito, Crise e o Fetichismo do Dinheiro

FETICHEO sistema capitalista consegue operar distintas formas de riqueza em diferentes níveis de abstração. A riqueza é produzida e circulada concomitantemente em diferentes camadas de representação. A primeira é a da produção do valor pelo trabalho vivo humano. A segunda a da circulação do dinheiro. A terceira a da circulação do crédito. E por fim a circulação do capital fictício. O sistema assim funciona através de representações de representações de valores. A base é sempre fornecida pelo trabalho direto humano, mas a existência de tantas camadas mediadoras acaba por apagar os laços que conectam formas superiores de representação em relação ao que de fato representam. Esta aparente desconexão entre as representações do valor e o valor criado pelo trabalho vivo é o que Marx chama de fetichismo. A história do capitalismo, incluindo a crise atual nos países ricos, nos revela como o dinheiro e o crédito ora funcionam como propulsores da produção e ora como formas de riqueza que momentaneamente se descolam do valor gerado através do trabalho. A crise financeira nada mais é do que o ajuste interno do sistema para que as representações da riqueza se realinhem com a produção de valor.

A ideia de que o modo capitalista de produzir riqueza opera através de representações de representações de valor já foi analisada anteriormente por Leda Paulani (aqui e aqui) e Rodrigo Teixeira (aqui e aqui) através do conceito de autonomização. Agora David Harvey também embarca nesta empreitada, ainda que não use propriamente o conceito de autonomização. Confira o vídeo abaixo, gravado em janeiro de 2012 com o título de “Swindlers and Prophets: Facts, Fictions and Fetishisms” e produzido pela BioEcon Media.

 

Fuente: http://marx21.com/2013/02/24/credito-crise-e-o-fetichismo-do-dinheiro/#more-5942

Credit Crunch: origins and orientation

CREDITO AGOTADO Paul Cockshott and Dave Zachariah

The cyclical pattern of capitalism is periodically punctuated by severe crises that lead to restructuring of the political-economic system. In this article we argue that the underlying factor of the current crisis is a real economic imbalance caused by an unprecedented growth of the nancial sector. Moreover, we argue that a return to an expansive era of capital accumulation will become impossible in the advanced countries.

Each structural crisis opens opportunities for signicantly advancing the position of the working-class. But it requires a socialist movement with the organisational and programmatic capacity to articulate and implement progressive policies. This is not the state of the movement at present. We believe that without a political economy of the working-class it is impossible to formulate a coherent political program of the working-class.

Leer más…

“Marx’s Critique of (Ricardian) Political Economy, the Quantity Theory of Money and Credit Money”

toronto-dollars-vs-sovereign-currency-p1470322

John Milios

Abstract

The Marxist concept of value is very frequently equated, whether explicitly or merely tacitly, with the corresponding Ricardian concept of “labour expended”. This paper argues that unlike the Ricardian theory of value, the Marxist theory of value is a monetary theory. In the Marxist system, the value of a commodity is expressed not through itself but through its distorted forms of appearance, in prices. Moreover, it cannot be defined in isolation, but exclusively in relation to all other commodities, in a process of exchange. In this relation of exchange value is materialised in money. The essential feature of the “market economy” (of capitalism) is thus not simply commodity exchange but monetary circulation and money. Commodity exchange presupposes thus the (positive) prices of all commodities involved. In other words, prices are not determined after the establishment of a non-monetary equilibrium system of barter between “production sectors”, like the Sraffian “linear production systems”. On the contrary, barter is for Marx non-existing, as all exchange transactions are made up of separate acts of exchange of commodities with money.

Leer más…

Debt and Punishment: A Critical Review of David Graeber’s Debt

Debt and Punishment

David Graeber’s book Debt: The First 5,000 Years is missing an analysis of capitalism

by Ingo Stützle

(article originally published in the May 18th, 2012 issue of the newspaper analyse & kritik)

The last few years of crisis politics were a prime example of how on the one hand profits are privatized, while on the other hand losses are socialized. The deep crisis of capitalism has left in its wake a sovereign debt crisis. The answer of the political class has been fiscal consolidation. Finance capital’s claims on returns are guaranteed and collected by the state. The invisible hand of the market is joined by the visible fist of the state. Struggles over state finances will be central battlefields in the next few years.

That is no doubt the reason why the publication of David Graeber’s book Debt: The First 5,000 Years was greeted with euphoria, even by the bourgeois press. In the Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung, Frank Schirrmacher wrote that Graeber “opens the reader’s eyes to what’s going on right now,” and furthermore, “Graeber’s text is a revelation, since one is no longer forced to react to the system itself within the system of apparent economic rationality.” Der Spiegel opines: “his book on the nature of debt and its economic and moral basis is already regarded as an anti-capitalist standard work of the new social movements which have emerged during the world economic crisis.” This is in reference to the Occupy protests. Even the chief economist of the Deutsche Bank group reviewed Graber’s book positively in the monthly economic policy journal Wirtschaftsdienst (4/2012) with regard to the question of the future of central banking. Since May 2012, the book has been available in a German edition.

Promises Become Debts

David Graeber, anthropologist and anarchist, is a Professor at Goldsmiths College of the University of London. Until 2007, he taught Ethnology at the ivy league university Yale. For political reasons, his contract was not renewed – Graeber is a political activist. Since the protests against the World Economic Forum in New York City in 2002, he has been an important figure. The role that he has played in the Occupy movement underscores this: not only has he participated, but he has published books on the movement.

Seguir leyendo Debt and Punishment: A Critical Review of David Graeber’s Debt

Crise econômica e taxa de lucro nos EUA

Ricardo Dathein. “Crise econômica e taxa de lucro nos EUA”*, Rev. Econ. Contemp., Rio de Janeiro, v. 15, n. 2, p. 322-341, mai-ago/2011

The article searchs to explain the crisis of U.S.A. through its causes on the real side of the economy, examining the profit rate performance and its distributive and technological components, and the National Accounts data. It is analyzed the apparent contradiction between an increasing profit rate in the moment of the beginning of the crisis. The unsustainable trajectory of the indebtedness and the negative performance of the wages in the labor market are interpreted as crucial and linked elements to explain the evolution and the origin of the crisis, and also to point possible alternatives with respect to its solution.

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